Alan Turing was an English mathematician who is considered to be the father of computer science and artificial intelligence. In addition to his accomplishments in theoretical mathematics, which include creating a formalized theory of basic algorithmic concepts such as “algorithm” and “computation,” he was also a cryptographer and the creator of the Turing Machine, which defined the notions of “algorithm” and “undecidability.” He also made prominent fundamental contributions to other areas of mathematics. However, Turing is probably best known for his work as a codebreaker in Britain during World War II. He devised an electromechanical machine called the Bombe that cracked Nazi Germany’s Enigma code and saved many thousands of lives by helping to defeat Hitler in several critical battles during the war.